Thursday, December 12, 2019

Chattel Slavery free essay sample

Indentureship was supposed to differ from slavery, however, the servants were treated as harshly as the slaves Chattel- African slaves were treated as commodities System of slavery whereby an individual and their offspring are recognised by the law as being the property of another person for life. This system was established by Europeans and formed the basis of transatlantic slavery With due respect to the Is good intentions, from all that I have read and studied it would be a mockery to compare Indian indentureship to African chattel slavery in the Caribbean. Firstly, Indians were allowed to retain: their family (Africans had theirs split up); their language (Africans had the use of theirs forbidden); their religion (Africans had theirs banned); their music (Africans had the drum representing the voice of their gods banned by laws, some of which remain on the statute book in Barbados to this day). This highlights the all-important difference between indentureship and slavery: The heart of slavery was not the horrible labour conditions. We will write a custom essay sample on Chattel Slavery or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page If that were so, slavery and indentureship might be comparable. The heart of slavery was the stealing of the Africans soul his language (the eyes through which one sees the world), his gods, his family, his musical sounds. That is why some 169 years after Emancipation, many Africans in the Caribbean remain enslaved. Some say enslaved mentally (in distinction to physical slavery), but this is misleading. SLAVERY IS MENTAL. Captivity is physical. Why the Africans have taken longer to restore their race as opposed to Indians, Jews and other ethnic groups that suffered at the hands of White Supremacy is because no other people were ever subjected to what the Africans suffered. If you capture a people and reduce them to harsh, brutal conditions of exploitation, once they survive, when that is brought to an end the people will soon rehabilitate themselves. But when you take away a peoples tongue, their connection to the ancestors, their gods; when you smash their family life so that the male loses respect for the female and vice versa; when you teach them to hate their skin, their lips, their hair, so that they hate anyone that looks like them then you will have destroyed the culture and soul of that people and recovery will be almost like a resurrection. That is why it has taken Rastafari, Vodun, Orisha and the other spiritual potencies to awaken and heal the descendants of the African slaves. Secondly, millions of Africans died on the dreadful crossing from Africa. How many Indians perished on their way here? The Trans-Atlantic trade in captive Africans and African chattel slavery lasted roughly from 1473 to the 1880s some four centuries. Indian indentureship lasted from the 1840s until when the end of the 19th century? Thirdly, the trade in African captives depleted the African homeland tremendously. Consequently, up to this day, in contrast to the huge populations of India and China, the African continent is badly underpopulated. In fact, it has been estimated that even if all the Black people returned tomorrow to Africa, it still would not be fully populated. Walter Rodney in   provides some Statistics to give an idea of the devastating effect that the trade in Africans had on Africa for four centuries. Whole towns and villages were wiped out. Ethnic groups disappeared. Others were driven to war on their neighbours or face the prospect of having their own group captured and shipped to the New World. The natural line and trajectory of material and spiritual development for millennia in Africas history up to the time of the Trans-Atlantic Trade in captive African was interrupted, disrupted and corrupted. While it is true that India suffered horribly as a result of the British penetration of India during the period of indentureship, history attests that neither the scale nor the time period of this penetration can match the reality of the impact of the Slave Trade and Slavery on Africans and their Motherland. But while the enslaved Africans unlike the indentured Indians had their ancestral cloak ripped from them, the White man could not take the living nucleus of their culture and its memory from them. So (as they say whoever loses his life shall gain it) they took this breath of their culture and created the living soul of Africa in the Caribbean they recreated their musical forms, they reconceived their ancient gods through new prisms (likje Judedo-Christianity, for example in Haitian Vodun and Rastafari), they revived their sense of an organic connection to the earth, they rediscovered the taste of their traditional cuisine, and so on. And that is why we find that almost all that is distinctive about indigenous Caribbean culture owes its inspiration, its image and likeness, to Africa. It is also probably why there is no enduring large-scale mass Back to India or Back to China movements coming out of the Caribbean. In a sense, Mother India and Mother China were not taken away from their indentured children in the Caribbean since they continued to wear their traditional dress, listen to their traditional music, speak their traditional language and worship ther traditional gods. When the true history of the last 5 centuries of the recently past millennium is finally placed in proper perspective, the incomparable tragedy of the African people during the era of the slave trade and slavery will come fully to light. It is without precedent in human history. I close by suggesting that the Indian people who are essentially of African origin as Rashidi has documented have a secure place in Rastafari, and as the Mansinghs have shown in their research, they have made a valuable contribution to the development of the Rastafari way of life. Indentured servants were working on contract to repay a debt, usually for transportation to America. Chattel means personal property, so chattel slaves were legally considered property, the same as a mule or a goat. An indentured servant worked for his/her master without pay until the debt was paid off. Typically, for repayment of the cost of being taken from England to America, the time of service was seven years, although it ranged from four to ten. At the end of that time, the indentured servant was free to leave and find other, gainful employment. There were cases of abuse by masters in which additional time was added by charging the servant for things like rent, food, lost or broken tools or products, etc. , because indentured servants were usually not well-educated and could be taken advantage of. The only ways a chattel slave could be released from a lifetime of unpaid service were manumission (being legally given freedom by his/her owner) or purchase, either by himself/herself rare, but possible or by a third party, such as societies of abolitionists who purchased slaves freedom for them. The best-known of these groups bought land in west Africa and founded there the nation of Liberia, for the purpose of resettling freed American slaves. Interesting sidelight: the term indentured is related to words like dentist and dental. An indentured servant had a written contract with his master. At the time the contract was signed, it was torn in two. The master kept one half and the servant kept one half. To ensure that these halves were part of the original document, the tear-lines were deliberately made irregular and jagged so that no other piece of paper would match. The jagged tearing was indented it looked like teeth

Thursday, December 5, 2019

MUCH ADO ABOUT NOTHING Analysis Essay Example For Students

MUCH ADO ABOUT NOTHING Analysis Essay A monologue from the play by William ShakespeareBENEDICK: This can be no trick. The conference was sadly borne; they have the truth of this from Hero; they seem to pity the lady. It seems her affections have their full bent. Love me? Why, it must be requited. I hear how I am censured. They say I will bear myself proudly if I perceive the love come from her. They say too that she will rather die than give any sign of affection. I did never think to marry. I must not seem proud. Happy are they that hear their detractions and can put them to mending. They say the lady is fair tis a truth, I can bear them witness; and virtuous tis so, I cannot reprove it; and wise, but for loving me by my troth, it is no addition to her wit, nor no great argument of her folly, for I will be horribly in love with her. I may chance have some odd quirks and remnants of wit broken on me because I have railed so long against marriage. But doth not the appetite alter? A man loves the meat in his youth that he cannot endure in his age. Shall quips and sentences and these paper bullets of the brain awe a man from the career of his humor? No, the world must be peopled. When I said I would die a bachelor, I did not think I should live till I were married. Here comes Beatrice. By this day, shes a fair lady! I do spy some marks of love in her.

Thursday, November 28, 2019

Lab Report on Density Measurement Essay Example

Lab Report on Density Measurement Paper Liquid is usually confined in a container, so its volume is relative to the volume of its container There are various instruments that are used to accurately measure the density of substances; the most commonly used are the densitometers, viscometer and hydrometers [3]. In this experiment, the density of selected liquid samples will be measured using a viscometer. 1. 2 Objectives of the Experiment 1 . To determine the density of low boiling point liquid samples by measuring their mass at controlled volume; 2. To determine the density of alumina by measuring the mass and volume of variously shaped alumina balls; and 3. Compare the density calculated from the given samples with the standard density at room temperature. 1. 3 Significance of the Experiment At the end of the experiment, the laboratory performer is expected to learn the following; 1 . The density of selected liquids and material at a given temperature; and 2. The proper method of measuring the volume and consequently the d ensity of irregularly shaped objects using water displacement method. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE Density is one of the most important and commonly used physical properties of matter. It is an intrinsic property which is represented by the ratio of a matters ass to its volume Density was purportedly discovered by the Greek scientist Archimedes in an unusual circumstance. According to stories, King Hirer of Syracuse asked Archimedes to determine whether his new crown is made of pure gold or not. It was seemingly impossible to identify the gold percentage that composed the crown because chemical analysis was still unstudied in those times. One day, when Archimedes was enjoying himself to a bath, he observed that the further he went down the tub, the lesser he weighed and the higher the water level rose up. We will write a custom essay sample on Lab Report on Density Measurement specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Lab Report on Density Measurement specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Lab Report on Density Measurement specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer He then came to the realization that he could determine the Asia of the mass of the crown and the volume of water displaced by the crown, and compare it to the value measured from the pure gold sample. Hence, density and the principle behind it were revealed Density is dependent on many factors, one of which is temperature. It specifically decreases with increasing temperature. This is because an objects volume undergoes thermal expansion at increasing temperature while its mass remains unchanged. This results to a decrease in density [1]. When matter undergoes a transformation to a different phase, it undergoes an abrupt change in density. The transition of molecules of matter to a less random form, say from gas to liquid or from liquid to solid, causes a drastic increase in the density. However, there are substances which behave differently from this density-temperature relationship, by which one example is water. The greatest density achieved by water molecules are at ICC. At temperatures higher or lower than ICC, its density slowly decreases. This makes ice less dense than water, a property not commonly exhibited by other liquids METHODOLOGY 3. Materials A. Viscometer, 25-ml B. Graduated cylinder, 1000-ml C. Graduated cylinder, 250-ml D. Beaker, 250-ml E. Low boiling point liquids (acetone, 70% solution ethyl alcohol, 70% solution spoilsport alcohol), 30 ml F. Distilled water G. Two sets of alumina balls (small cylindrical, large cylindrical and large spherical balls) H. Analytical balance beam 3. 2 Determining the Mass of a 25-ml Liquid [5] A. Carefully clean and dry the viscometer. B. Weigh the empty viscometer and its stopper in the balance beam and record the mass. C. Fill the viscometer with the liquid sample up to its brim, and insert the stopper carefully. Wipe off any excess fluid on the sides of the hygrometer with a clean cloth or tissue. D. Balance and record the mass of the filled viscometer plus the stopper. E. Empty the contents of the viscometer in a clean beaker. F. Make three trials for each liquid. 3. 3 Determining the Mass and Volume of Alumina Balls [5] A. Measure the mass of each alumina ball in the balance beam. B. Add distilled water to the graduated cylinder and record its initial volume. C.

Sunday, November 24, 2019

kkk in the 1920s essays

kkk in the 1920s essays The Ku Klux Klan, is a secret terrorist organization that originated in the southern states during the period of Reconstruction following the American Civil War and was reactivated on a wider geographic basis in the 20th century. The original Klan was organized in Pulaski, Tennessee, during the winter of 1865 to 1866, by six former Confederate army officers who gave their society a name adapted from the Greek word kuklos ("circle"). Although the Ku Klux Klan began as a prankish social organization, its activities soon were directed against the Republican Reconstruction governments and their leaders, both black and white, which came to power in the southern states in The Ku Klux Klan's long history of violence grew out of the resentment and hatred many white Southerners felt in the aftermath of the Civil War. Blacks, having won the struggle for freedom from slavery, were now faced with a new struggle against widespread racism and the terrorism brought about by the Ku Klux Klan. While the menace of the KKK has peaked and waned over the William J. Simmons, a veteran, preacher and salesman, was a compulsive joiner, holding memberships in many different societies and two churches. He had always dreamed of starting his own fraternal group and in the fall of 1915 he put his plans into action. On Thanksgiving Eve, Simmons herded 15 fellow fraternalists onto a bus and drove them from Atlanta to nearby Stone Mountain. There, before a cross of pine boards, Simmons lit a match and the Ku Klux Klan of the 20th century was born. In 1920, the "re-born" Klan consisted only of a few thousand members. With the help of two publicists, Simmons spread the word of the Klan around the U.S. like wildfire. The Klan was to be pro-American, which to them meant anti-black, anti-Jewish and most importantly, anti-Catholic. The Klan grew rapidly from a ...

Thursday, November 21, 2019

Sustainable and Renewble resources in Ontario Essay

Sustainable and Renewble resources in Ontario - Essay Example The renewable resources that are found in Ontario are natural resources that can be replenished with the passage of time; the latter happening either through biological reproduction or through processes that occur naturally. These resources can be considered a basic part of the natural environment and in fact, they form a large component of its geographical features. It is therefore important to study the renewable resources of Ontario to determine their lifecycle, since a positive lifecycle is normally an indicator of the sustainability of the resource being studied, and the opposite is true. There is a connection between sustainable and renewable resources and the ability of the people using them succeeding. This depends entirely on the quality of these resources and the depth at which they are used in the day-to-day lives of those who are its frequent users. The practices involved in the use of renewable resources are what determine how well these resources are used as well as the means through which these resources can be sustained for use by future generations.... to contribute to the success of the people’s responsible use of renewable resources and, in fact, many businesses have ensured its implementation within their wider plans of the future (Christidis & Law 81). When the responsible use of renewable resources is integrated together with the mainstream business practices, it leads to the extension of the awareness of individuals in the society concerning the importance of these resources. It has been found that any studies concerning renewable resources, being geographical in nature, has to be done over a specific duration of time in order to note the results of the studies being conducted. Various issues usually emerge that may involve the stakeholders and these may require a response in order to protect the renewable resources in question. It is a fact that many businesses in Ontario at times have aims of integrating the sustainability of renewable resources when conducting their activities as well as in their processes and produ cts, but often, these businesses end up facing significant challenges that they fail to adopt there measures. Recent studies on renewable resources have attempted to reinforce a connection between sustainability and innovation. This has involved the selection and maximization of the value of such studies for the long-term prospects that the businesses that function in this environment will have to consider when making their plans concerning the environment. For instance, a business that has a paper-recycling scheme is able to improve a balance sheet in several ways such as savings on costs, enhancing employee commitment, as well as ensuring that the forests within the province are preserved. Technology is one of the most important sources of solution during the implementation of projects whose

Wednesday, November 20, 2019

What existentialist artists attempt to communicate through their Essay

What existentialist artists attempt to communicate through their respective work - Essay Example After thinking about my own thoughts and reading Waiting for Godot and watching Garden State, I believe that existentialist artists are attempting to communicate the message of how people let others control their decisions instead of deciding for themselves what to do in the future. In Waiting for Godot, the story revolves around the life of Vladimir and Estragon who undergo strange experiences as they seek to wait for entity identified by the name Godot whose arrival is long awaited, but not forthcoming. Vladimir and Estragon are waiting for Godot to make the decisions for them; however, they lose track of time and self awareness of their lives. â€Å"Let’s go. We can’t. Why? We’re waiting for Godot†¦ What did we do yesterday,† (Beckett, 8-9). They are so dependent on Godot to make the decisions for them that they can’t even remember the events that happen yesterday in their lives. Through this scene, Samuel Beckett is trying to tell his readers that if they rely too much on others, then they will lose the precious memories they made throughout their life because they lost track of time of waiting for someone to forge their future. In addition, Samuel Beckett wants his readers to know how people have the strength to make their own decisions. For example, when Pozzo is trying to ask for help, Vladimir says, â€Å"Let us not waste our time in idle discourage! ... Let us make the most of it, before it is too late,† (Beckett, 90). Every individual has the choice to make an impact on other people’s daily lives. It is not up to others to make the decisions for us, but for us to. Beckett wants his reader there are many opportunities, such as saving someone, that we can take and make impact on history. Another example of individual decision making is when Vladimir realizes that Godot has not greeted them. The experiences of Vladimir and

Monday, November 18, 2019

The Statute of David Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

The Statute of David - Essay Example Commissioned by the Cathedral Works Committee in 1501, Michelangelo created The Statute of David, which was his testimony to the beauty of God’s creation. The sculpture was a representation of King David in the Bible. During the critical times of the Florence Republic’s threatening and powerful rival states along with their rival the Hegemony of the Medici Family, the Statute of David symbolized the defense of civil liberties. The Statute of David or â€Å"the Eyes of David† was later turned towards Rome. In 1873, the Statute of David was placed in the Accademia Gallery in Florence. The original location of the Statute of David was replaced with a replica of the sculpture. Michelangelo’s deeply spiritual faith to do God’s Will was an influence in his creation of the Madonna Della Pieta or the bust of the Virgin Mary. The sculpture was created for the St. Peter's Basilica in Vatican City. Michelangelo sculpted the compassion and serenity in the Virgi n Mary’s face. His purpose for the Madonna Della Pieta was to embody â€Å"the spiritual beauty of the infinite beauty of God.† The Madonna Della Pieta was Michelangelo’s testimony to his eternal love for God. The sculpture is a symbol of the Christian faith. Michelangelo’s spiritual obedience to do God’s Will influenced his artistic work. His spiritual faith allowed him to create many artistic masterpieces that influenced the Italian Renaissance. He created inspirational masterpieces for the world. He is Michelangelo di Lodovico Buonarroti Simoni, â€Å"the divine one.†